Several systems to define and monitor performance and progress towards sustainability of bioenergy have been developed for implementation at different scales, including operations, landscapes or jurisdictions. Some are formalised systems (e.g. GBEP 2011; RSB 2016; ISO 2015; ASTM 2016; SBP 2019) while others are inputs made through the scientific literature (McBride et al. 2012; Dale et al. 2015; Lattimore et al. 2009; Mead & Smith 2012). Even if much has been achieved, there are still challenges associated with understanding, defining, measuring, and governing and communicating sustainability of bioenergy (IEA Roadmap 2017). This has led to very different perceptions of sustainability of bioenergy in society, with a pronounced lack of trust in potential benefit within some groups (Mai-Moulin et al. 2019).
In light of these challenges, the IEA Bioenergy inter-Task project on “Measuring, governing and gaining support for sustainable bioenergy supply chains” was formed to synthesise works of a number of IEA Bioenergy Tasks, including Task 37, 38, 39, 40, 42 and 43. The project aimed at addressing the following questions:
The project was started in 2016 and completed by the end of 2018. A multitude of studies were initiated focusing largely on the agricultural and forestry sectors, and on biogas systems.